Herzberg Two-Factor Theory

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Herzberg argues that both factors are equally important, but that good hygiene will only lead to average performance, preventing dissatisfaction, but not, by itself, creating a positive attitude or motivation to work. To motivate the employee management must enrich the content of the actual work they ask them to do. For example, building into tasks set a greater level of responsibility, and the opportunity to learn new skills. In advocating making work more interesting, and improving the quality of the work experience for the individual, Herzberg coined the phrase 'Quality of Working Life'.
The table below lists the common hygiene factors and motivators identified within organisations.

Herzberg's Two-factor Theory

Hygiene Factors


Job Security,
Working Conditions,
Level and Quality of Supervision,
Company Policy and Administration,
Interpersonal Relations

Nature of Work,
Sense of Achievement,
Personal Growth and Advancement